Mormoniapostoli John A. Widtsoe väitti:
Saapasjalkahautausmaita, joihin haudattiin epäpyhissä
orgioissa, useimmiten saluunoissa, kuolleita miehiä, ei löydy
Utahista. Saluunat tulivat sinne ei-mormonien mukana.
(Gospel Interpretations, Salt Lake City, 1947, s. 250)
Tämä apostoli Widtsoen lausuma ei selvästikään
ole totta. Itse asiassa kirkon toinen presidentti Brigham Young
omisti "ensimmäisen baarin" Salt Lake Cityssä. Historiantutkija
H.H. Bancroft kertoo:
Mitä tulee viskinvalmistukseen, president
Taylor sanoo, että pyhät valmistivat aluksi alkoholia
hautomiseen, säilömiseen ja lääkitsemistarkoituksessa,
ja sitä juotiin vähäisessä määrin.
Emigranteilta hankittiin myöhemmin tislaamoita, ja alkoholin
valmistusta ja myyntiä valvoivat myöhemmin kaupunginvaltuustot.
Ensimmäinen baari S. L. Cityssä, ainoa vuosikausiin,
sijaitsi Salt Lake Housessa, jonka omistivat presidentti Young
ja Feramorz Little. Se avattiin matkustavien majoittamiseksi,
näiden tarpeita piti jonkun tyydyttää, ja veljien
mielestä heidän oli paras kontrolloida kauppaa eikä
antaa ulkopuolisten tehdä sitä. (History of Utah,
s. 540, alaviite 44)
Stanley P. Hirshson:
Nauvoossa mormonit joivat paljon. ... joulukuussa
1843 mormonien hallitsema kaupunginvaltuusto valtuutti Joseph
Smith in myymään alkoholia hotellissaan.
kirkko hallitsi alkoholikauppaa. V. 1856 Caleb Green rahtasi kuusi
tonnia tupakkaa, rommia, viskiä, konjakkia, teetä ja
kahvia tasankojen yli Youngille, ja kaksi vuotta myöhemmin
The New York Times raportoi, että 'pääasiallinen
juomasaluuna ja pelikasino ovat Salt Lake Housessa, kirkon hallitsemassa
rakennuksessa ja Heber C. Kimballin välittömässä
parhaansa päästäkseen eroon kilpailevista oluenpanijoista."
(The Lion of the Lord, s. 285)
7.6.1863 Brigham Young myönsi kokoontuneelle
seurakunnalle, että hän oli rakentanut tislaamon:
Kun täältä ei saanut viskiä,
ja me tarvitsimme sitä järkeviin tarkoituksiin, rakensin
talon jossa sitä voi valmistaa. Kun tislaamo oli melkein
valmis ja hyvässä toimintakunnossa, lähistöllä
kuului olevan armeija, suljin sen; enkä tehnyt galloniakaan
viskiä tehtaassani, sillä sitä tuli tänne
suuria määriä, enemmän kuin tarpeeksi.
(Journal of Discourses, osa 10, s. 206)
Peter K. Dotson ... tuli Salt Lake Cityyn vuonna
1851, ja oli ensin töissä Brighamilla tislaamon johtajana,
myöhemmin hänestä tuli postinhoitaja. (History
of Utah, s. 573, alaviite 2)
Josiah F. Gibbs kertoo Brigham Youngin tislaamosta:
Mormoniprofeetta hallitsi neljänkymmenen
vuoden ajan ehdottomasti Salt Laken kaupunginvaltuustoa ja poliisivoimia.
Ja mitä paheita ja rikoksia syntyikin päihteiden myynnistä
ja käytöstä sanottuna aikana voidaan oikeutetusti
panna mormonijohtajien tilille.
however, of bringing their unappealable dictum to bear on the
side of temperance and decent morals, the Prophet Brigham became
a distiller of whiskey and other intoxicants, and high priests
were the wholesale and retail distributors.
evidence in support of the foregoing allegations is clipped from
data compiled from the city records by gentlemen living in Salt
2.7.1861 erityinen komitea, jonka osana oli kysymys
alkoholin valmistuksesta ja myynnistä, esitti seuraavan raportin:
"Salt Lake Cityn arvoisalle pormestarille:
'Your committee, to whom was referred the subject
of the manufacture and sale of spirituous liquor, would report
that they visited several distilleries in and near the city and
would respectfully recommend that the City Council purchase or
rent the distillery erected by Brigham Young near the Mouth of
Parley's canyon, and put the same in immediate operation, employing
such persons as shall be deemed necessary to manufacture a sufficient
quantity to answer the public demand; controlling the sale of
the same, and that the profits accruing therefrom be paid into
the City Treasury.
(Lights and Shadows of Mormonism, by Josiah F. Gibbs, Salt
Lake City, 1909, pp. 248-249)
Orlando W. Powers, joka toimi Utahin ylimmän
oikeusasteen tuomarina, antoi tämän todistuksen Reed Smootin
After the Liberal Party had secured control of
the city of Salt Lake, I procured an investigation to be made
of the city records, which had been written up by the Mormon city
recorders from the earliest time,...
The city of Salt Lake at that time ran a saloon--a city saloon.
It had a city billiard hall. It had a city bathing establishment.
It ran a distillery. Its recorder kept an account with the trustee
in trust for the Mormon Church, which trustee was credited with
tithing--and the tithing, by the way, is the 10 per cent that
good Mormons are supposed to pay into the church--due from the
various church officials, and they were charged with liquor, and
for bathing, and for things of that kind. (The Reed Smoot Case,
Vol. 1, pp. 804-805)
26.7.1890 tuomari Powers puhui:
It will please you to know that notwithstanding
the fact that the city had gone into the whisky business on its
own hook, on August 19, 1862, it granted to Brigham Young a license
to distill peaches into brandy. August 11, 1865, Mr. Young and
George Q. Cannon addressed the Council on the liquor question.
Mr. Young said:
This community needs vinegar and will require spirituous liquor
for washing and for health, and it will be right and proper for
the city to continue its sale as it has done and make a profit.
...Brigham Young kept an open account on the city books, and this
account shows that from 1862 to 1872 there were 235 different
charges for liquor purchased by him amounting in the aggregate
to $9316.66, or an average of $846.97 per year,...
"An examination of the official records of the United States shows
that from 1862, when the tax on distilled spirits was first levied,
until the coming of the Union Pacific railroad in 1869, which
was the beginning of the Gentile era in Utah, thirty-seven distilleries
existed in this Territory.... These facts, taken from public records,
dispose of the charge that the Gentiles invaded a temperance community.
(The Salt Lake Tribune, July 14, 1908)
John D. Leen mukaan Brigham Young piti suurta alkoholivarastoa.
14/15.5.1867 Lee kirjasi seuraavaa päiväkirjaansa:
About 5 P.M. Prest. B. Young & suite arrived
in the city from his southern visit amoung the Sai[n]ts.... On
the following day I went to see him in his Mansion where I spent
near day--verry agreeable indeed. He had a decanter of sp[l]endid
wine brought in of his own make & said, I want to treat Bro.
Lee to as Good an article, I think, as can be bought in Dixie.
The wine indeed was a Superior article. He said that he had some
300 gallons & treated about 2000$ worth of liquers yearly
& continued that we [he] wish[e]d that some one would take
his wine at 5$ per gallon & sell it, where upon Pres. D. H.
Wells said that he would take 200 gals. at 6$ a gallon &c."
(A Mormon Chronicle, The Diaries of John D. Lee, Vol. 2,
V. 1867 Brigham Young väitti, etteivät
useimmat piispoista noudattaneet Viisauden sanaa:
You go through the wards in the city, and then
through the wards in the country, and ask the Bishops--'Do you
keep the Word of Wisdom?' The reply will be 'Yes; no, not exactly.'
'Do you drink tea?' 'No.' 'Coffee?' 'No.' 'Do you drink whisky?'
'No.' 'Well, then, why do you not observe the Word of Wisdom?'
'Well, this tobacco, I cannot give it up.' And in this he sets
an example to every man, and to every boy over ten years of age,
in his ward, to nibble at and chew tobacco. You go to another
ward, and perhaps the Bishop does not chew tobacco, nor drink
tea nor coffee, but once in a while he takes a little spirits,
and keeps whiskey in his house, in which he will occasionally
indulge-- Go to another ward, and perhaps the Bishop does not
drink whisky nor chew tobacco, but he 'cannot give up his tea
and coffee.' And so it goes through the whole church. Not every
Bishop indulges in one or more of these habits, but most of them
do. I recollect being at a trial not long since where quite a
number of Bishops had been called in as witnesses, but I could
not learn that there was one who did not drink whiskey, and I
think that most of them drank tea and coffee. I think that we
have some bishops in this city who do not chew tobacco, nor drink
liquor nor tea nor coffee to excess.... If a person is weary,
worn out, cast down, fainting, or dying, a brandy sling, a little
wine, or a cup of tea is good to revive them. Do not throw these
things away, and say they must never be used; they are good to
be used with judgment, prudence, and discretion. Ask our bishops
if they drink tea every day, and in most cases they will tell
you they do if they can get it." (Journal of Discourses,
Vol. 12, pp. 402-403)
Samana vuonna apostoli Wilford Woodruff sanoi:
Hyvin harvat meistä ovat pitäneet Viisauden
sanan; mutta en epäile, että jos presidenttin Youngin
neuvoja noudatettaisiin, niin tämän territorion asukkaat
säästäsivät miljoonia dollareita joka vuosi.
Journal of Discourses, Vol. 11, p. 370
Saarnassaan 10.3.1860 Brigham Young sanoi:
Many of the brethren chew tobacco, and I have
advised them to be modest about it. Do not take out a whole plug
of tobacco in meeting before the eyes of the congregation, and
cut off a long slice and put it in your mouth, to the annoyance
of everybody around. Do not glory in this disgraceful practice.
If you must use tobacco, put a small portion in your mouth when
no person sees you, and be careful that no one sees you chew it.
I do not charge you with sin. You have the 'Word of Wisdom.' Read
it. (Journal of Discourses, Vol. 8, p. 361)
Tupakan pureskelemisesta tuli vakava ongelma Tabernaakkelissa,
sillä v. 1870 Brigham Young puhui:
There is another subject I wish to refer to. Last
Sabbath this front gallery,...was very full. After meeting was
dismissed I took a walk through it, and to see the floor that
had been occupied by those professing to be gentlemen, and I do
not know but brethren, you might have supposed that cattle had
been there rolling and standing around, for here and there were
great quids of tobacco, and places one or two feet square smeared
with tobacco juice. I want to say to the doorkeepers that when
you see gentlemen who cannot omit chewing and spitting while in
this house, request them to leave; and if such persons refuse
to leave, and continue their spitting, just take them and lead
them out carefully and kindly. We do not want to have the house
thus defiled. It is an imposition for gentlemen to spit tobacco
juice around, or to leave their quids of tobacco on the floor;
they dirty the house, and if a lady happen to besmear the bottom
of her dress, which can hardly be avoided, it is highly offensive.
We therefore request all gentlemen attending conference to omit
tobacco chewing while here. (Journal of Discourses, Vol.
13, p. 344)
Mormonihistorioitsija Leonard J. Arrington on huomioinut
The strong and increased emphasis on the Word
of Wisdom which characterized the official Mormon attitude throughout
the remainder of the century appears to have begun in 1867....
The explanation for these rules and the widespread resolves to
obey the Word of Wisdom seems to lie in the conditions of the
Mormon economy...was necessary for the Latter-day Saints to develop
and maintain a self-sufficient economy in their Rocky Mountain
retreat. Economic independence was a necessary goal of the group
and every program of the church tended toward that end... There
must be no waste of liquid assets on imported consumers' goods....
Saints who used their cash to purchase imported Bull Durham, Battle-Axe
plugs, tea, coffee, and similar 'wasteful' (because not productive)
products were taking an action which was opposed to the economic
interests of the territory. In view of this situation, President
Young came to be unalterably opposed to the expenditure of money
by the Saints on imported tea, coffee, and tobacco. It was consistent
with the economics of the time that he should have had no great
objection to tobacco chewing if the tobacco was grown locally.
It was also consistent that he should have successfully developed
a locally-produced 'Mormon' tea to take the place of the imported
article.... In a letter of instructions to all the settlements
south of Great Salt Lake City, President Young wrote:
This community has not yet concluded to entirely
dispense with te use of tobacco, and great quantities have been
imported... I know of no better climate and soil than are here
for the successful culture of tobacco. Instead of buying it in
a foreign market and importing it over a thousand miles, why not
raise it in our country or do without it?... Tea is in great demand
in Utah, and anything under that name sells readily at an extravagant
price. Tea can be produced in this Territory in sufficient quantities
for home consumption, and if we raise it ourselves we know that
we have the pure article. If we do not raise it, I would suggest
that we do without it."
(Brigham Young University Studies, Winter 1959, pp. 43-45)
Brigham Young huomautti puheissaan teestä,
kahvista, tupakasta ja viskistä näin:
You know that we all profess to believe the 'Word
of Wisdom.' There has been a great deal said about it, more in
former than in latter years. We as Latter-day Saints, care but
little about tobacco; but as 'Mormons' we use a great deal....
The traders and passing emigration have sold tons of tobacco,
besides what is sold here regularly. I say that $60,000 annually
is the smallest figure I can estimate the sales at. Tobacco can
be raised here as well as it can be raised in any other place.
It wants attention and care. If we use it, let us raise it here.
I recommend for some man to go to raising tobacco. One man, who
came here last fall, is going to do so; and if he is diligent,
he will raise quite a quantity. I want to see some man go to and
make a business of raising tobacco and stop sending money out
of the territory for that article.
Some of the brethren are very strenuous upon the 'Word of Wisdom,'
and would like to have me preach upon it, and urge it upon the
brethren, and make it a test of fellowship. I do not think that
I shall do so. I have never done so. We annually expend only $60,000
to break the 'Word of Wisdom', and we can save the money and still
break it, if we will break it." (Journal of Discourses,
Vol. 9, page 35)
What I am now about to say is on the subject of
tobacco. Let us raise our own tobacco, or quit using it. In the
years '49, '50, '51, '52, and '53, and so long as I kept myself
posted...we spent upwards of $100,000 dollars a year for tobacco
alone! We now spend considerably more than we did then. Let us
save this ready means in our country by abstaining from the use
of this narcotic, or raise it ourselves." (Ibid., Vol.
11, p. 140)
It is true that we do not raise our own tobacco:
we might raise it if we would. We do not raise our tea; but we
might raise it if we would, for tea-raising, this is as good a
country as China; and the coffee bean can be raised a short distance
south of us.... We can sustain ourselves; and as for such so-called
luxuries as tea, coffee, tobacco and Whiskey, we can produce them
or do without them." (Ibid., Vol. 11, pp. 113-114)
Young kehotti myös mormoneita valmistamaan
viiniä. Angus M. Woodbury sanoi:
A circular was sent out to the various orders
of the stake by Brigham Young and George A. Smith suggesting policies
of operation. In brief, it suggested that fruit be canned or dried
fit for any market; that wine be made at few places under expert
direction for exportation... (The Mormon United Order in Utah,
Leonard J. Arrington kertoo, että Brigham
Young halusi enimmät viinit myydyksi pakanoille:
The attempts of the latter-day Saints in southern
Utah and elsewhere to make wine are all illustrative of the dominating
philosophy of economic self-sufficiency. One function of these
enterprises, of course, was to provide wine for the sacrament
of the Lord's Supper.... Wine was used in the sacrament of the
church as late as 1897. A more important function of wine-making,
however, was to provide much-needed income for the poverty-stricken
pioneers in Utah's Dixie. The intention was to sell most of the
wine in mining communities in southern Utah and Nevada. Brigham
Young instructed as follows: 'First, by lightly pressing, make
a white wine. Then give a heavier pressing and make a colored
wine. Then barrel up this wine, and if my counsel is taken, this
wine will not be drunk here, but will be exported, and thus increase
the fund.' More of the dixie wine was consumed in the mormon settlements
than church officials had hoped, however, and the enterprise was
discontinued before 1900. (Brigham Young University Studies,
Winter 1959, pages 46-47)
Alaviitteessä 29 s. 251 teoksessa A Mormon
Chronicle, osa 2, annetaan tämä tieto:
At Brigham Young's suggestion, Neagle went east...
In 1865 he was called upon to take charge of the wine-making industry
at toquerville. Here he raised many varieties of grapes, imported
a wine press from California, and soon became the largest wine
producer in the intermountain area. His large stone house with
the wine-cellar basement still stands in Toquerville.
Kirjassaan Desert Saints Nels Anderson kertoo:
Wine-making was another Mormon enterprise that
came to the same end as the cotton, iron, and silk missions. The
St. George Tithing Office reported on March, 1887, a supply of
6,610 gallons of wine, valued at 50 cents per gallon....
The making of wine and some whiskey and brandy went ahead without
organized direction for more than a decade. On March 26, 1874,
when Brigham Young spoke to the women... He favored making wine
for sale to outsiders.... The tithing office at St. George received
wine of many grades. It met the problem by setting up standards.
The tithing clerk issued these instructions on September 20, 1879:
"In order to obtain a more uniform grade
of wine than we are able to obtain by mixing together the tithes
of small pressings in the hands of sundry individuals; it is suggested
that those having but small quantities of grapes to make up into
wine, deliver their tithes in grapes at this office. This may
be arranged under the direction of the bishop so that economy
may be preserved in the hauling, for which, of course, credit
will be given on the tithing account.
"Thus the church found itself the chief single
producer of wine in the Dixie area... Because the tithing offices
held the largest amount of wine for the market at any time, it
was in a position to name the price. Church interest is evidenced
in a letter sent by the St. George Tithing Office August 12, 1880.
This letter was a bill sent to the managers in charge of building
the Manti Temple, to whom had been sent a quantity of wine--4
barrels, or 158 gallons. It was not sold, but tithing credit was
asked as follows: $187.50 for the wine; $20.00 for the barrels;
for hauling the wine to Manti, $16.00; total $233.50. This was
given in pay to the builders of the temple.
"In 1889 Edward H. Snow, clerk of the St. George Tithing Office,
wrote the presiding bishop at Salt Lake City regarding wine: 'Our
sales during the year do not amount to half of what we are obliged
to make up from the grapes that are brought in.... We have made
at this office alone over 600 gallons this year. We cannot refuse
the grapes or the wine, and I see no way to get rid of it.' Snow
wanted the presiding bishop to take the surplus. Later the tithing
office sent men with loads of wine to the northern settlements,
where they traded Dixie's liquid wealth for wheat and flour or
took it to the mining camps,...
"Dixie brethren did not follow Brother Brigham's counsel. They
drank so much of the wine that by 1890 drunkenness was a worry
to the church leaders. The tithing office discontinued accepting
wine for tithes and abandoned its own presses." (Desert Saints,
by Nels Anderson, University of Chicago Press, 1966, pp. 373-374)
"The Mormon wine business proved the entering
wedge for a kind of fraternalism between Mormons and Gentiles
which was very disturbing to local church leaders. Mormons who
drank wine with the Gentiles became friendly with them. Besides
breaking down the social barriers, wine-drinking became a vice
to some of the brethren....
"The High Council complained that some wine-drinkers
did not pay their tithing, that others neglected their families,
and that still other wine-drinkers were degenerating into loafers....
The bishops were required to take offenders to task; but this
was not easy, since in some wards most of the brethren made wine
for sale and most of the brethren had become wine-drinkers to
"Since the St. George Tithing Office, as a practical measure,
had originally joined with the farmers in making wine, the church
authorities were much embarrassed in pushing their drive against
wine-drinkers. About 1887 the tithing office discontinued making
wine. The passing of Silver Reef as a market left the producers
with quantities of wine on hand. The tithing office managed, as
well as it could, to get rid of the more than six thousand gallons
"From the moral angle, church leaders were forced to recognize
that their people could not be makers of liquor without being
drinkers of it, too. There were too many drinkers of wine and
too few moderate drinkers among them." (Desert Saints,